Writing Learning Outcomes
To write Learning Outcomes, focus on the desired “end state” of a process and how achievement can be measured. Educational theorists have developed lists of action verbs that reinforce each of the six levels of learning. Here are some examples:
- Remember — define, recall, list, recognize, memorize
- Understand — classify, discuss, explain, identify, describe
- Apply — interpret, choose, employ, illustrate
- Analyze — contrast, compare, distinguish, differentiate
- Evaluate — appraise, judge, select, support
- Create — assemble, construct, design, develop, formulate
Certain verbs are unclear and subject to different interpretations in terms of what actions they specify. Such verbs call for covert behavior, which cannot be observed or measured, and as such these types of verbs should be avoided: appreciate; become aware of; become familiar with; learn; know.
Sample Learning Outcomes
- "Evaluate and process legacy collection inventories for conversion to current technologies (EAD)."
- "Utilize popular archival records management software."
- "Develop instructional materials and facilitate training on the use of social media tools for library staff."
- "Design, develop, test, and implement website content for both the public library website and intranet site."
- "Apply knowledge learned in graduate level coursework to the creation and analysis of information literacy tools and services."
- "Collect, analyze and evaluate the digital resource policies/strategies of a pre-selected group of benchmark libraries on behalf of the Library."
- "Select appropriate learning resources and services for specific courses by evaluating course curricula."
- "Assess user experience and student learning outcome by measuring the success of each implementation of learning objects."